In spiritualism, the term Medium refers to a person with the ability to produce evidence of survival of the human soul or personality beyond the physical state known as death. This is achieved by "channelling" or communicating with the spirit of a family member, friend or loved one. Mediumship involves communication between a Medium and one or more spirit personalities, often during a private reading or audience demonstration.

The priority for a medium is to produce enough information that their family member, friend or loved one is with them and that they still survive albeit at a different level and location. For example the medium should be able to provide a physical description; describe aspects of their personality; what work they did; what illness they died of; their reason for communicating and of course memories.

In modern spiritualism, Mediumship can be generally divided into two forms. Physical Mediumship, where the medium is known as a "spirit communicator," generally involves the manipulation of energies and energy systems. Mental Mediumship, where the medium is referred to as a "spirit operator," involves communication.

Mental Mediumship

Mental Mediumship is communication from a spirit that takes place within the Medium's consciousness, without the use of any of the five physical senses. Mental Mediumship often occurs through mind to mind communication with the spirit communicator. The medium then relates what he/she sees, hears, or feels to the recipient.

Mental Mediumship comes in three main forms: Clairvoyance, Clairaudience, and Clairsentience.


Clairvoyance or "clear seeing," is the ability to see anything which is not physically present, such as objects, animals, or people. This sight usually occurs in the Mediums "mind's eye," but are really seen with the eyes of the spirit. Mediums must train their minds with such practices as meditation in order to achieve this ability, and that assistance from spiritual helpers is often necessary. Some clairvoyant mediums say they can see a spirit as though the spirit had a physical body and were physically present.


Clairaudience, or "clear hearing," is referred to as the ability to hear spirit voices that are not audible to other people. Mediums hear the spirits' voices as though a person was sitting next to them or they hear spirit voices within their mind as more of a thought or a verbalization of a thought. In both cases, the voices are inaudible to others, even if they are seated in close proximity to the medium. The medium may also hear music or singing, in addition to spoken thought.


Clairsentience, or "clear feeling," is said to be the most commonly experienced form of Mental Mediumship. Clairsentience is the ability to sense physical attributes of a spirit presence. The medium may feel the presence of a spirit through a touch, a smell, temperature change, or a slight breeze. Mediums say that they will feel the ailments the spirit had while alive.

Physical Mediums

Physical phenomena are of such a nature that it is usually demonstrated only at private séances. Any person sitting with the medium can hear and see what is happening. Audible voices or materialised figures of the spirit people can appear along with intimate information about themselves, their memories of their earthly life and details of their life in the spirit world.